Maraca

Genus Maraca Perez-Miles, 2005

Genus status. Synonymized genus Iracema (Perez-Miles, 2005) by Perez-Miles in 2005 with the proposition of the present taxon name, due to a found that name Iracema was preoccupied for a species of freshwater fish (Pisces).

The genus firstly was established for one species - Iracema cabocla described from the collections of National Institute for Amazonic Research (Manaus, Brazil) on the base of four specimens of theraphosids from Maraca, Roraima state, Brazil.

These spiders did not fit with any known theraphosid genus, suggesting that they represent a new genus. The study showed that they share the main synapomorphies of the Theraphosinae: extended subtegulum, keel on palpal bulbs, theraphosine types of urticating hairs and unilobular spermathecae.

In 2003 Bertani and Carla-da-Silva after conducting some examinations and describtion of formerly unknown male of species Paraphysa horrida (Schmidt, 1994) transfered it in the genus Iracema (Bertani R. & Carla-Da-Silva S. 2003, Notes on the genus Iracema Perez-Miles, 2000 with the first description of the male of I. horrida (Schmidt, 1994) (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Zootaxa, 362: 1-8).

The species Paraphysa horrida was described by G. Schmidt on the single specimen - female tarantula from Northern Brazil and was includes in genus Paraphysa Simon, 1892 on the base of similarities of the shape of spermathecae with the species P. scrofa (Molina, 1788) (= P. manicata Simon, 1892) but differs by its larger size, short teeth on some of the paired claws and details on the shape of spermathecae.

The addition of Maraca (after Iracema) to a previous cladistic analysis showed that it would be the sister group of Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903, both of them sharing the presence of the retrolateral process on the male palpal tibia.

Type species - Iracema cabocla Perez-Miles, 2000.

Differs from most theraphosid genera by the complex of the following taxonomical features: type IV of urticating hairs, bulb resting in a ventral distal excavation of the male palpal tibia, male metatarsus I touching both branches of tibial spur when flexed, labium with less than 20 labial cuspules, and presence of many spiniform setae on the prolateral and retrolateral sides of maxillae and coxae I-IV.

Differs from relative genus Cyriocosmus Simon, 1903 in the palpal organ by lacking a paraembolic apophysis and in the spermathecae by the lack of a spiral neck and a caliciform fundus. From genus Grammostola Simon, 1892 by the absence of stridulatory hairs and from Plesiopelma Pocock, 1901 - by the absence of a nodule on the male metatarsus I.

The palpal organ of Maraca differs from that of Homoeomma Ausserer 1871 by the absence of a digitiform apophysis and from that of Paraphysa Simon, 1892 by the presence of a process on the retrolateral face of palpal tibia.

In a nature occupy damp sites of a selva where, probably, live in burrows. The biology of representatives of genus poorly known.

The genus Maraca is represented by two species of tropical terrestrial small sized tarantulas.
  Keeping condition. The only species rarely keeping in captivity is Maraca horrida. The fact of its breeding is also known.

Distribution. All species occure from the territories of Brazil and Venezuela. The species Iracema cabocla has known only from type locality with no further information available.
 

Species

Common name

Areal

Photo

Biology

Keeping conditions

cabocla
Perez-Miles, 2000

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Maraca (state Roraima, Brazil)

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  Reaches hardly more than 4 cm of a body length.
  Cephalothorax and legs light reddishbrown, abdomen grey-brown.
  Spermathecae with two receptacles only partly fused.
  Any biology data not available

  Not kept in captivity

horrida
(Schmidt, 1994)

Brazilian eclipse

Northern Brazil (Amazonas state), Venezuela



Photo Tomotaka Akiyama © 2004

  Former refered to genus Paraphysa.
  Long and slender-legged spider. Reaches maximum 12 cm of leg span.
  Not aggressive but rather shy and nervious tarantula. Readilly flicks urticating hairs from its abdomen and from known information they very irritative

  Must be easily kept under 70-80% of humidity and temperature about 25-27Аб.
  A thick layer of humid substratum, a water bowl and adequate retreat is require